‘Intersections of ethnicity, culture, religion, sexuality with gender and school related gender based violence (SRGBV) in England’
Keywords:Gender, Intersectionality, School related Gender based Violence (SRGBV), Secondary Schools, England
This paper draws on qualitative analysis of interviews with 24 teachers and 4 focus group discussions with year 9 to 11 students in secondary schools in England. Data was collected across 3 schools for the project: ‘‘Developing Gender Equality Charter Marks in order to overcome gender stereotyping in education across Europe’. The analysis presented here focuses on intersections of gender with constructs of ethnicity, culture and religion, sexuality norms and enactments of SRGBV.
The intersectionality of gender with sexual norms emerged in essentialist views about female academic and professional competence and normative expectations of sexual conduct, sustaining a culture of gender disrespect and a gender regime in which GBV was the penalty of transgressions of gender and sexual norms and the means to reiterate male privilege in two schools.
The intersectionality of gender with culture, ethnicity and religion emerged in one of the three schools in teachers’ discourses of ethnic deficit associated with perceived lack of ability, freedom, and choice in ethnic minority girls’ and women’s lives and inappropriate expressions of sexuality that diverted from white British norms.
Further research is required to enhance knowledge about whole school cultures and gender regimes in which gender injustices are performed alongside other axes of power and discrimination.
Archer, L. (2018). An intersectional approach to classed injustices in education: Gender, ethnicity, ‘heavy’ funds of knowledge and working-class students’ struggles for intelligibility in the classroom. Education and Working-Class Youth: Reshaping the Politics of Inclusion (pp. 155-179).
Archer, M. and Francis, B. (2006). Challenging classes? Exploring the role of social class within the identities and achievement of British Chinese pupils, Sociology, 40, 1, pp.29-49.
Bhopal, K. (2018). White Privilege: the myth of a post-racial society. Bristol: Polity Press.
Braun, V. and Clark, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 3(2). Pp77-101.
Bhopal, K. and Chapman, T.K (in press 2018). International Minority Ethnic Academics at Predominantly White Institutions, British Journal of the Sociology of Education
Carrington, B., and Skelton. C. (2003). “Re-thinking ‘Role Models’: Equal Opportunities in Teacher Recruitment in England and Wales.” Journal of Education Policy 18, pp. 253–265.
Chapman, T.K and Bhopal, K (2018) 'The Perils of Integration: Exploring the Experiences of African American and Black Caribbean Students in Predominately White Secondary Schools'. Ethnic and Racial Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1478110
Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment, New York: Routledge.
Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and Power, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Crenshaw, K. (1989) ‘Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctorine, Feminist Theory, and
Antiracist Politics’, in K. Bartlett and R. Kennedy (1991). Feminist Legal Theory:
Readings in Law & Gender, Oxford: Westview Press.
Dunne , M., Humphreys, S. & Leach, F. (2006) Gender violence in schools in the developing world, Gender and Education, 18 (1), pp.75-98.
Dunne, M. (2007), 'Gender, sexuality and schooling: Everyday life in junior secondary schools in Botswana and Ghana'. International Journal of Educational Development, 27, pp. 499-511.
Equality and Human Rights Commission. (2009). Staying on. London: Equality and Human
Epstein, D. (1994). Challenging lesbian and gay inequalities in education. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Greene, Margaret, et al., (2013). A girl’s right to learn without fear: Working to end gender-based violence at school, Plan International.
Griffin, H. (2108). Gender Equality in Primary Schools: A Guide for Teachers. London: Blackwell.
Jones, N., Moore, K., Villar-Marquez, E. and Broadbent, E. (2008). Painful Lessons: The Politics of Preventing Sexual Violence and Bullying at School, Working Paper 295. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Mac an Ghaill, M. (1994). The making of men: masculinities, sexualities and schooling Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mirza, H.S. 2009. “Plotting a History: Black and Postcolonial Feminisms in ‘New Times’.” Race, Ethnicity and Education, 12, pp. 1–10.
Myers, M. and Bhopal, K. (2018) ‘Muslims, home education and risk in British Society’, in Special Issue Educating British Muslims: identity, religion and politics in a neo-liberal era. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 39, 2. pp.212- 216. https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2017.1406337
School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV) (United Nations Girls Education Initiative) (2013). UNGEI – UNESCO Discussion
Parkes, J. (2015). “Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges”
Phillips, A. (2017). (Re)theorising laddish masculinities in higher education. Gender and Education, 297(7) pp. 815-830.
Phipps, A., Ringrose, J. Renold, E.and Jackson, C. (2017) ‘Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence’, Journal of Gender Studies DOI: 10.1080/09589236.2016.1266792
Phillips, A. and Young, I. (2015). ‘Lad culture’ in higher education: Agency in the sexualisation debates. Sexualities 18(4)
Reay, D. (2008). Class out of Place: The White Middle Classes and Intersectionalities of Class and ‘Race’ in Urban State Schooling in England in L. Weis (ed) The Way Class Works, New York: Routledge.
Richards, G. and Posnett, C. (2012) Aspiring girls: great expectations or impossible dreams? Educational Studies, 38(3), pp.249-259, DOI: 10.1080/03055698.2011.598682
Skeggs, B. (1997). Formations of class and gender. London: Sage.
Tatli, A. and Ozbilgin, M. F. (2012). An Emic Approach to Intersectional Study of Diversity at Work: A Bourdieaun Framing, International Journal of Management Review, 14, 180-200.
Taylor, Y. (2005) What now? Working-class lesbians’ post-school transitions, Youth and Policy, 87, pp.29–43.
Taylor, Y. (2006) Intersections of class and sexuality in the classroom, Gender and Education, 18(4), pp.447-452, DOI: 10.1080/09540250600805179
Tsouroufli, M. (2012). ‘Breaking in and breaking out a Medical School: Feminist Academic Interrupted’, Special Issue on ‘Being a Feminist Academic’ Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5. pp. 467-483.
Tsouroufli, M. (2018) ‘‘Playing it right?’ Gendered performances of professional respectability and ‘authenticity’ in Greek academia’’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, August issue, Vol 19, No. 6,
Van Doodewaard, C. and Knoppers, A. (2018). Perceived differences and preferred norms: Dutch physical educators constructing gendered ethnicity, Gender and Education, 30 (2), pp. 187-204, DOI: 10.1080/09540253.2016.1188197
Wayne M. and Cumming-Potvin, W. (2018) Transgender and gender expansive education research, policy and practice: reflecting on epistemological and ontological possibilities of bodily becoming, Gender and Education, 30(6), pp. 687-694, DOI: 10.1080/09540253.2018.1487518
Yuval-Davis, N. (2006) ‘Intersectionality and Feminist Politics’, European Journal
of Women’s Studies, 13, (3), pp 193-209.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).