Intersections of gender, sexual orientation and gender-based violence in Hungarian secondary schools.
Keywords:school-related gender-based violence, sexual harassment, homophobic violence, same-sex violence, Hungary
This paper addresses the intersections of gender, sexual orientation and school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV), and enquires into students and teachers’ perceptions of gender-based violence (GBV) among students in Hungarian secondary schools, their personal opinions, attitudes and experiences on GBV, and institutional responses to GBV in these schools. It specifically aims to find out how three types of GBV, sexual harassment of girls by boys, same-sex violence and homophobic violence, are perceived and handled. The paper is based on data from semi-structured interviews with 30 teachers and 3 focus groups with students in 3 Hungarian secondary schools in the framework of the project “Developing Gender Equality Charter Marks in order to overcome gender stereotyping in education across Europe.” Exploring discourses about cases of violence according to the gender and sexual orientation of the targets has revealed teachers’ and students’ ambivalence towards what was considered to be violence. Different types of GBV were approached differently and mostly on an individual basis. These differences reflect a lack of awareness and an ambivalent mixture of ideas of staff and leadership about gender inequalities in general, and lack of understanding the intersections of gender and sexuality with school violence, which potentially influences the implementation of institutional policies to tackle gender-based violence.
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